Headlines News :
Home » » The Use of Contextual Guessing Technique in Improving of Reading Comprehension

The Use of Contextual Guessing Technique in Improving of Reading Comprehension

Written By Sukri on May 23, 2012 | 9:11 PM

INTRODUCTION
 
A. Background
In the global era English is very important, English as an international language is used to communicate by all people in the world. English has important role to develop in many aspect, especially in our country, whether in aspect of economics, education, military and politics. Those aspects use English to communicate by the purpose to improve good relationship between our country and other countries to share the education system, share the technology military, etc. So that, the English language has been learned all of people through course training or in the school and it makes the subject education try to improve the teaching and learning English language to be better through developing on the curriculum, the school facilities, teacher’s quality, textbook material, etc.
Reading is a necessary skill that any learner needs. Unfortunately, how to teach reading has not been given due care in some schools. In the past, according to the traditional view, reading begins with the child's mastering the names of the letters, mastering the letter-sound relationships, then, learning some easy words in isolation, and, finally, reading simple stories with highly controlled vocabularies (Harp and Brewer, 1996: 17).
According to writer observation during doing  Praktek Pengalaman Lapangan (PPL) in SMA Kristen Kondosapata Makassar, most of students are not able and not understood what they have read. They only read the material without know what they have read. So, reading activities in the classroom not useful for them if they did’nt know and understand what information they have read.
In the interview with some students, they said that they got difficulties in identifying the implicit and explicit information of the text. Besides, many students have low motivation in reading class. The students’ lack of understanding on reading lesson is mainly caused by an inappropriate teaching technique used when the teachers attempted to explain reading materials. The teacher only uses one technique namely, conventional technique. In the reading class, the teacher presents a subject in the text book and asks students to read whether silently or loudly, and then students have to answer the questions that follow. Consequently, the reading lesson becomes monotonous and boring, students lack motivation to read, even if they read, they show negative attitudes. As a result, the students are not able to get good scores in their reading achievement.
  Reading cannot be separated from comprehension. That is why there appear a lot of problems dealing with reading comprehension. Many English learners find it difficult to understand the English text. Very often, they get stuck because of some problems, such as unfamiliar words, their inability in understanding the context, being reluctant, and so forth. Reading is not an easy skill to master. It is a complex process that requires specialized skill of the reader (Dechant, 1977: 21). Besides, it is also comprehension process as well as writing.
 According to Nunan (1998: 33), reading needs identification and also interpretation processes which require the reader’s knowledge about the language structure used in the text and his knowledge about a given topic. It is the complexity that makes some students less interested in this kind of activity. They find it difficult to understand what is on the reading passage since they do not know the technique which can help them to read more effectively and efficiently. This phenomenon happens in almost every language class.
Reading comprehension skills separate the "passive" unskilled readers from the "active" readers. Skilled readers do not just read, they interact with the text. Skilled readers, for instance, predict what will happen next in a story using clues presented in text, create questions about the main idea, message, or plot of the text, and monitor understanding of the sequence, context, or characters (Sanders, 2001: 26). To be able to achieve the purposes of reading comprehension, one should have some basic reading skills as follows; (1) literal skills (getting the central thought and main idea, recalling and recognizing of facts and information, finding answer to specific questions); (2) interpretive skills (drawing conclusions, generalizing, deriving meaning from context); (3) critical skill (determining the writer’s purpose); and (4) creative skills (applying information into daily life).
The technique of finding the meaning of an unknown word through its use in a sentence and then guessing how it is pronounced is known as contextual guessing or context identification, or the use of context clues. Contextual guessing is the most important skill used by most readers in attacking new words. It is closely related to comprehension and this is one of the most practical skills student learn. Contextual clues have several uses  in reading. The procedures for developing abilities in contextual guessing can be incorporatedin class reading presentations or special exercises. Before we go further analyzing contextual guessing, we must consider a few preliminary questions concerning this skill. These questions pertain to the usefulness and to the trainability of the guessing skill.
Based on the case above, the writer is inspired to conduct a research under the title “The student ability in using contextual guessing technique in reading comprehension at SMK Negeri Mehalaan”.
B. Problem Statement
            Relating to the issue and the assumption that the teaching reading by the contextual guessing technique can be use to stimulate the students to comprehen any English text, so the writer formulates research question as follow :
1.      To what extent the contextual guessing can improve the student reading comprehension?
2.      What are the student attitudes toward the use contextual guessing in reading comprehension?
C. Objective of the Research
The purpose of research is to find out (1) whether or not contextual guessing can improve the student reading comprehension. (2) what are the student attitudes toward the use of contextual guessing technique in reading comprehension.
D. Significance of the Research
The result of the research is expected to be useful information and a reference for the English teacher of SMK Negeri Mehalaan. They are also expected to give a new insight in improving English reading comprehension by using contextual guessing technique.
E. Scope of the Research
The research will limited to improve reading comprehension through contextual guessing  technique during reading process. The given materials are aimed to know the different of the result by using contextual guessing technique.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A.    Related Research Findings
      Reading is an interactive and constructive process involving the reader, the
text, and the context of the reading experience.
Some previous research found that the use of contextual guessing technique provided students to improve reading comprehension.
1.      Dubin and Olshtain (1993), Schatz and Baldwin (1986) “Context clues” are also called “contextual clues”, “contextual cues” or “context cues”. Whatever name they have, they are generally defined as the clearly stated or implied words or phrases which help to comprehend unfamiliar words in context because they can activate the corresponding context to clarify the contextual meanings of the words concerned. In this sense, context clues serve as hints to the words in question. Context clues vary a great deal, and thus can be classified into different types according to different criteria.
2.       
B. Some Pertinent Ideas
    1.Reading 
Harison and Smith (1980: 23) define reading as the act of responding with appropriate meaning to print or written verbal symbols. It means that reading is the result of interaction between the graphic symbols that represent language and the reader’s language skill, and cognitive skills and knowledge of the words. According to Wallace (1992: 4), reading as interpreting means reacting to a written text as a piece of communication. In other words, we assume some communicative intent on the writer’s part which the reader has some purposes in attempting to understand.
According to Williams (1996: 11) reading is a process of obtaining meaning from written text. Readers carry out knowledge of the writing system, knowledge of the language, and the ability to interpret meaning from a text.
According to Aebersold and Field (1997: 15) reading is what happens when people look at a text and assign meaning to the written symbols in that text.The similar definition stated by Nunan (1998: 33) that reading is a process of decoding written symbols, working from a smaller unit (individual letters) to larger ones (words, clauses, and sentences). Based on the theories above, it can be concluded that reading is a more much complex process to obtain ideas or meaning from a text, which is symbolized in written or printed language.
a. Concept of  Reading
Reading is an interactive and constructive process involving the reader, the text, and the context of the reading experience. Reading involve the development of an understanding of text, thinking about text in different ways, and using variety of text types for different purpose (from the framework for the NAEP reading assessment, Grigg, Daane, Jin, & Campbel,2003, P.3). other definition that reading is a complex developmental challenge that we know to be intertwined with many others
developmental accomplishments : attention, memory, language, and motivation. For
example, reading is not only a cognitive Psycholinguistic activity but also asocial
activity. ( snow, burns & Griffin, 1998, P. 15).
One of another skills should be achieved by students is reading, and it can’t be
denied that reading is one of the important thing in the student skill. The definition of
reading According to Nunan (1989:17) in his book said that “Reading is a process of
decoding written symbols, working from smaller units (individual letters) to larges ones
(words, clauses and sentences)”. Another definition is come from Grigg, Daane, Jin, &
Campbel (2003) Reading is an interactive and constructive process involving the reader,
the text, and the context of the reading experience. Reading involve the development of an
understanding of text, thinking about text in different ways, and using variety of text types
for different purpose.
In other hand, Snow, Burns & Griffin, (1998) defining that reading
is a complex developmental challenge that we know to be correlate with many others
developmental accomplishments: attention, memory, language, and motivation.
There are so many definitions about reading. But the important thing in teaching
learning process is the way how to know the students mastering in comprehend the text.
The teacher has to observe their students related with the student’s difficulties, student’s
language and students weaknesses. That information is very important. It can help the
teacher as references in the teaching-learning process. After we have known the
information about that, the teachers can give the reading material according to the student’s
level.
b. Level of Reading
Some people say that the act of reading only consists of pronouncing words. They consider that comprehension is not important. Concentrating on pronouncing words rather than comprehending the essence of the passage is a waste of precious time. Based on the idea above, the teacher needs to emphasize the basic comprehension skills. According to Burns ET. Al (1984: 177) there are four level of comprehension:
a.       Literal Reading
Literal reading or reading for literal comprehension which involves acquiring information that directly stated in a section, is important and also prerequisite for higher level understanding. At this level, the readers are able to comprehend what the author has said.
b.      Interpretive Reading
Interpretive reading involving reading between the lines or making inferences, it is the process of deriving ideas that are implied rather than directly stated. At this level, the readers are able to understand what the author means.
c.       Critical Reading
Critical reading is evaluating written material comparing the ideas discovered in the material, which is known standards and drawing conclusion about their accuracy, appropriateness. Critical reading depends upon literal comprehension and grasping implied ideas is especially important.
d.      Creative Reading
Creative reading involves going beyond the material presented the author. It requires readers to think as they read, just as critical reading does, and it also requires them to use their imagination. In teaching reading, a teacher must teach the four levels of comprehension level. First, use a discussion or questioning technique that brings out just what the author said or in other words, in pre-reading; a teacher ask questions related to the topic before he starts his reading. It is probably more effective to develop desire to read the article and help them arrive at a literal understanding of the piece to be read. Then, after the students have completed reading the assigned section, teacher and students should discuss it.
Based on the theories above, it can be concluded that reading is a complex process to obtain ideas or meaning from a text which is symbolized in written or printed language. Comprehension in reading means that when someone reads he must understand what he reads. It can be said that in reading comprehension, there should be an interaction between the author and the reader. The author expresses his ideas in the form of written language and the reader has to understand the meaning of the text intended by the author. To be able to achieve the purposes of reading comprehension, one should have some basic reading skills as follows; (1) literal skills (getting the central thought and main idea, recalling and recognizing of facts and information, finding answer to specific questions); (2) interpretive skills (drawing conclusions, generalizing, deriving meaning from context); (3) critical skill (determining the writer’s purpose); and (4) creative skills (applying information into daily life). In relation to the study, those skills can be implemented into two levels of understanding as follows:
a.       Reading the lines
Learners are able to understand the literal meaning i.e., responding to the precise meaning of familiar words in their context and inferring the meaning of unfamiliar words from contextual clues and also visualizing the scenes and events the words conjure up.
b.      Reading between the lines
Learners are able to get the writer’s intent and purpose, to interpret clues to character and plot, and to distinguish between fact and fiction.
c. Strategies of Reading
Language instructors are often frustrated by the fact that students do not automatically transfer the strategies they use when reading in their native language to reading in a language they are learning. Instead, they seem to think reading means starting at the beginning and going word by word, stopping to look up every unknown vocabulary item, until they reach the end. When they do this, students are relying exclusively on their linguistic knowledge, a bottom-up strategy. One of the most important functions of the language instructor, then, is to help students move past this idea and use top-down strategies as they do in their native language.
Effective language instructors show students how they can adjust their reading behavior to deal with a variety of situations, types of input, and reading purposes. They help students develop a set of reading strategies and match appropriate strategies to each reading situation.
Strategies that can help students read more quickly and effectively include
1.       Previewing: reviewing titles, section headings, and photo captions to get a sense of the structure and content of a reading selection
  1. Predicting: using knowledge of the subject matter to make predictions about content and vocabulary and check comprehension; using knowledge of the text type and purpose to make predictions about discourse structure; using knowledge about the author to make predictions about writing style, vocabulary, and content
  2. Skimming and scanning: using a quick survey of the text to get the main idea, identify text structure, confirm or question predictions
  3. Guessing from context: using prior knowledge of the subject and the ideas in the text as clues to the meanings of unknown words, instead of stopping to look them up
  4. Paraphrasing: stopping at the end of a section to check comprehension by restating the information and ideas in the text
Instructors can help students learn when and how to use reading strategies in several ways.
1.       By modeling the strategies aloud, talking through the processes of previewing, predicting, skimming and scanning, and paraphrasing. This shows students how the strategies work and how much they can know about a text before they begin to read word by word.
  1. By allowing time in class for group and individual previewing and predicting activities as preparation for in-class or out-of-class reading. Allocating class time to these activities indicates their importance and value.
  2. By using cloze (fill in the blank) exercises to review vocabulary items. This helps students learn to guess meaning from context.
  3. By encouraging students to talk about what strategies they think will help them approach a reading assignment, and then talking after reading about what strategies they actually used. This helps students develop flexibility in their choice of strategies.
When language learners use reading strategies, they find that they can control the reading experience, and they gain confidence in their ability to read the language. Reading is an essential part of language instruction at every level because it supports learning in multiple ways.
1.       Reading to learn the language: Reading material is language input. By giving students a variety of materials to read, instructors provide multiple opportunities for students to absorb vocabulary, grammar, sentence structure, and discourse structure as they occur in authentic contexts. Students thus gain a more complete picture of the ways in which the elements of the language work together to convey meaning.
  1. Reading for content information: Students' purpose for reading in their native language is often to obtain information about a subject they are studying, and this purpose can be useful in the language learning classroom as well. Reading for content information in the language classroom gives students both authentic reading material and an authentic purpose for reading.
  2. Reading for cultural knowledge and awareness: Reading everyday materials that are designed for native speakers can give students insight into the lifestyles and worldviews of the people whose language they are studying. When students have access to newspapers, magazines, and Web sites, they are exposed to culture in all its variety, and monolithic cultural stereotypes begin to break down.
When reading to learn, students need to follow four basic steps:
  1. Figure out the purpose for reading. Activate background knowledge of the topic in order to predict or anticipate content and identify appropriate reading strategies.
  2. Attend to the parts of the text that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity enables students to focus on specific items in the input and reduces the amount of information they have to hold in short-term memory.
  3. Select strategies that are appropriate to the reading task and use them flexibly and interactively. Students' comprehension improves and their confidence increases when they use top-down and bottom-up skills simultaneously to construct meaning.
  4. Check comprehension while reading and when the reading task is completed. Monitoring comprehension helps students detect inconsistencies and comprehension failures, helping them learn to use alternate strategies.
Instruction in reading strategies is not an add-on, but rather an integral part of the use of reading activities in the language classroom. Instructors can help their students become effective readers by teaching them how to use strategies before, during, and after reading.
Before reading: Plan for the reading task
1.       Set a purpose or decide in advance what to read for
  1. Decide if more linguistic or background knowledge is needed
  2. Determine whether to enter the text from the top down (attend to the overall meaning) or from the bottom up (focus on the words and phrases)
During and after reading: Monitor comprehension
1.       Verify predictions and check for inaccurate guesses
  1. Decide what is and is not important to understand
  2. Reread to check comprehension
  3. Ask for help
After reading: Evaluate comprehension and strategy use
1.       Evaluate comprehension in a particular task or area
  1. Evaluate overall progress in reading and in particular types of reading tasks
  2. Decide if the strategies used were appropriate for the purpose and for the task
  3. Modify strategies if necessary
Students do not learn to read by reading aloud. A person who reads aloud and comprehends the meaning of the text is coordinating word recognition with comprehension and speaking and pronunciation ability in highly complex ways. Students whose language skills are limited are not able to process at this level, and end up having to drop one or more of the elements. Usually the dropped element is comprehension, and reading aloud becomes word calling: simply pronouncing a series of words without regard for the meaning they carry individually and together. Word calling is not productive for the student who is doing it, and it is boring for other students to listen to.
1.       There are two ways to use reading aloud productively in the language classroom. Read aloud to your students as they follow along silently. You have the ability to use inflection and tone to help them hear what the text is saying. Following along as you read will help students move from word-by-word reading to reading in phrases and thought units, as they do in their first language.
  1. Use the "read and look up" technique. With this technique, a student reads a phrase or sentence silently as many times as necessary, then looks up (away from the text) and tells you what the phrase or sentence says. This encourages students to read for ideas, rather than for word recognition.
   d.  The Purpose of Reading
            There are six purpose in reading. They are :
a.       To be able to identify and remember specific facts as a main idea
b.       To enjoy/relax
c.        To be able to follow instruction to reach a goal
d.       To critical the logic or data presented
e.        To study according to an assignment or test requirement
f.        To solve problems
In while-reading activities, students check their comprehension as they read. The purpose for reading determines the appropriate type and level of comprehension.
2.       When reading for specific information, students need to ask themselves, have I obtained the information I was looking for?
  1. When reading for pleasure, students need to ask themselves, Do I understand the story line/sequence of ideas well enough to enjoy reading this?
  2. When reading for thorough understanding (intensive reading), students need to ask themselves, Do I understand each main idea and how the author supports it? Does what I'm reading agree with my predictions, and, if not, how does it differ? To check comprehension in this situation, students may :
a.       Stop at the end of each section to review and check their predictions, restate the main idea and summarize the section.
    1. Use the comprehension questions as guides to the text, stopping to answer them as they read.
 e.  Reason for Reading
Although any reason a child reads is a good one, did you know there are three main goals for reading? They are to be entertained, to find information, and to perform a task. Consider these ideas to make the most of your youngster’s reading and to boost learning.
1.      For entertainment
When your child reads poetry, fantasies, or mysteries, she is reading for entertainment:
a.        Ask why your youngster liked a particular book. Was it the way the author wrote?  Was it funny, interesting, or scary?
b.      Find out if the book is part of a series.
c.       Suggest that she write a story or poem of her own.
2.      For information
When your youngster reads nonfiction books like science or nature stories, biographies, and other “true” books, he is reading for information:
a.       Discuss unfamiliar terms as he comes across them.
b.      Have him look at chapter titles, bold print, and pictures to support his reading.
c.       Ask him to tell you what he learned. To perform a task When your child helps you prepare a recipe or reads directions that come with a project, she’s reading to perform a task:
1.      Encourage your youngster to read all the steps aloud.
2.      Help her gather the materials that are needed.
3.      Suggest she study any drawings or diagrams to clarify the instructions.
4.      Have her follow each step in order.
f.  Reading Is Important
Everyone knows reading is important, but have you ever asked yourself why is it so important? Here I list out 8 reasons why reading is important. Hope you can really find out the reason why reading is so important for you, so you got a brand new will to explore the world of reading. So why reading is important?
a.       Building Knowledge
Using varied learning activities enhances knowledge of content. Instructors should search the professional journals and conference presentations for these activities. For example, a class can read The Diary of Anne Frank, gather information about World War II, and search for materials about the Jewish communities, economics, and culture in Europe. These students may learn more than the simple ability to retell the story of Anne Frank.
Instructors can search the Internet for web sites devoted to course units that provide new knowledge related to the text. Two excellent sites are Web Quest and The Voice of the Shuttle. They provide links to sample lessons and to sources of information about authors and about topics.
      Students can search the Internet for information related to an assignment. One student reading an essay titled "The Exercise Fix" searched Google.com and found a whole web site devoted to exercise addiction. Another student reading an essay about government and health care written by Malcolm Forbes, Jr., found web pages about Forbes that helped him understand Forbes' point of view on health care.
b.      Building vocabulary
Vocabulary, taught in context, enhances knowledge. Concept mapping is an especially successful tool for social construction of knowledge. Students focus on a word and brainstorm definitions, descriptions, examples, features, and other aspects as they contribute from their personal prior knowledge. Then some students search the dictionary for definitions, roots, prefixes, and suffixes while others search the Internet for applications and elaborations of the concept. Other students may simply keep their personal vocabulary journals related to the essays. They identify unknown words, seek a relevant definition and pronunciation, and incorporate the word in a sentence applicable to the essay.
The narrative genre suggests a slight variation of the same strategies. However, the instructor still needs to build background of the era and of the author. For example, students who read "The Black Cat" by Edgar Allan Poe should consult a dictionary for unfamiliar words.  The common pattern for a story is somewhat similar to that of an essay with an introduction (of the main character, the setting, and the problem), a body (the sequence of events), and a conclusion (the resolution of the problem). Poe startles the reader by telling the end of the story first, but then he goes back in time to tell how the main character is in jail facing the death penalty.
Because skimming may produce confusion in a story, students should read strategically.  They should read a page, then stop and write a brief notation at the bottom of the page. These marginalia later provide a resource for designing a flow chart of the events in the correct order. 
            Instructors definitely can prepare the underprepared when they make the assumption that ability to succeed in college is not innate; it is learned. As stated in the College Entrance Examination Board's Academic Preparation for College (1983), instructors can guide students in learning "what college entrants need to know and be able to do” to succeed   in college (p. 1). Also, instructors can increase background knowledge with lessons similar to a modified whole language approach in which students learn about the selection instead of just enough to retell it. Finally, instructors can promote the learning of new related vocabulary and increase use of generic strategies that are learned with enough repetition and success that these strategies transfer to other courses. Our college graduates are there to prove the case.
             c. Preparation to Action
     Reading is essential way which can help out. In today’s world, getting reviews and feedback from other people is a big impact on what’s your next decision, the pros and cons of one thing. Read about how to cook a meal; how to play chess; which place is nice for holiday family trip; read the menu before order food, read the manual before using a new gadget. These all can help us become more prepare before really get into it.
                                       Read       Learn       Do        Achieve

     Reading is a starting step of many things, which build a more solid stairs for the student  to climb up achieving something big out there.

            d. Gain Experience from Other People
     When the student is reading, they are actually gaining the knowledge and experience of someone. It can faster up their success towards one thing, as they don’t need to repeat the same mistake while focus on the right path in achieving one thing. It’s like a mountain of gems for them to discover in books, of people’s success, failures and advices.
            e. Tools of Communicating
     It is the most important tool of communicating, through reading, students communicate, through reading, student  understand more, and thus they can communicate better with another. As if a person that know nothing, he won’t has anything to share, and he probably don’t even understand what people are sharing. Through reading, the student builds a more solid bridge of communication. It is one of the most important tools we use every day to connect with each other. Whereas if student don’t read, they can’t even connect with the world and what people are talking about out there, including to understand what this article is all about. Because reading connects us with the world.
f. Technique of Presenting Material
The way of presenting material in the classroom is an aspect that should be paid attention by a teacher. A teacher who cannot create a good presentation in the class will lead learners into boring situation. However if the teacher can stimulate student by an attractive presentation the student will come to their long to memory. Such situation is a useful for teaching and learning process, especially in teaching and learning process.
A good material will bring the student concentration and attitude toward reading reason. If the material are not interesting, the student will not pay much attention to the lesson. So the teacher will be difficult to attain the objective of their teaching.
C. Reading Comprehension
   1. Definition of Reading Comprehension
Reading comprehension is influenced significantly by a student’s level of word knowledge, which includes vocabulary and spelling skills, as well as the ability to decode words in print. “Knowing words” involves understanding both the structure and meaning of words at various levels of complexity. Teachers can facilitate the growth of word knowledge through the explicit teaching of word patterns and word-solving strategies within the context of a word-rich classroom. The goal of instruction in reading, spelling, and vocabulary is to help students develop “word consciousness” and to become independent word-solvers in all subject areas.
Reading comprehension is a complex undertaking that involves many levels of processing. One of the most fundamental aspects of comprehension is the ability to deal with unfamiliar words encountered in text. Readers who struggle with word-level tasks use up valuable cognitive space that could be allotted to deeper levels of text analysis. It is not enough to rely on context cues to predict the meaning of new words, since this strategy often results in erroneous or superficial understandings of key terms, especially in content-area reading (Paynter, Bodrova, & Doty, 2005). Mature readers need to possess a basic knowledge of “how words work” and a set of strategies for approaching new words encountered throughout the day.
It is necessary for the students of Senior High School to master reading comprehension. Cooper (1986:11) stated that Comprehension is a process in which the reader may construct meaning by interacting with the text. In reading comprehension, a reader should have knowledge about understanding the reading passage. The common questions on the passages are primarily about the main ideas, details, and an inference that can be drawn from the passages.
According to Singer (1985) reading comprehension has been defined as an interpretation of written symbols, the apprehending of meaning, the assimilation of ideas presented by the written, and the process of thinking while deciphering symbols. Further, reading comprehension is related closely to the cognitive competence of the readers, because this will produce comprehension. This idea also supported by Parera in Kahayanto (2005:9), he states as follows:
Memahami adalah memperhatikan naskah tertulis dengan maksud memahami isinya. Proses ini dilakukan dengan mata diam atau membaca dalam hati. Hasil pemahaman disebut pemahaman bacaan. Cara membaca yang demikian disebut cara membaca pemahaman”.
Comprehension is invisible. Its definition, its process, and its product continue to be elusive. Cognitive psychologists, English literature professors, and reading methods professors debate these issues, resulting in a confusion of materials and methods for college developmental reading instructors.
Cognitive psychologists argue that comprehension is the result of innate intelligence; a student is just born "smart." This view is related to Thorndike's statement that com-prehension is the manipulation of memories (Thorndike, 1917).  Professors in college English departments perceive comprehension along the lines of literary analysis. Their major debate is the source of interpretation. At one end of the continuum are those who feel the analysis should focus on the writer (objective).  At the other extreme are the professors who believe the comprehension of the piece of literaturlies in how the reader feels about the text (subjective).  Reading methods professors have seen reading comprehension from other points of view that run along a continuum from a synthetic skills approach (built on the theory of phonics) to a holistic approach.
            Louise Rosenblatt (1938), an English literature professor, became frustrated with this polarity of theories and contended that comprehension of literature is constructed from a dialogue between writer and reader (constructive). Vygotsky  (1978), a linguistics professor, expanded this idea of construction of meaning to include the input of others and the environment (social construction). The result is the class discussion in which the students and professor learn about the writer's background, style, and attitudes in order to interpret the selection in light of what the message contributes to the participants today.
            As defined by Partnership for Reading (2005), Reading comprehension is understanding a text that is read, or the process of "constructing meaning" from a text. Comprehension is a "construction process" because it involves all of the elements of the reading process working together as a text is read to create a representation of the text in the reader's mind.
It is very difficult to define comprehension. Reduced to its simplest elements we might say that comprehension is a part of the communication process of getting the thoughts that were in the author’s mind into the reader’s mind. This is a difficult process because it involves the transmission of an idea through several imperfect media. For example, the author must have a clear idea in his mind, then reduce this idea to written language; this will be printed; and finally the reader looks at the printed word and forms an idea.
Reading can be thought of as being on two levels at once. First of all the reader should get the objective information i.e. facts. According to Fry (1965, p. 26) these facts require little interpretation or judgment. Then on a higher level, the reader should be able to get subjective information, i.e. the tone and the mood of the story, unstated ideas or the overall information. “It might only hint at other situations with which the reader is supposed to be familiar. Or the reader might be expected to generalize from the specific facts given, in order to get a main idea”
Authors may not state the main purpose of a piece of writing. It is for the reader to bring his background knowledge and thinking ability to get the main idea. “Readers who can only read facts and nothing more can never be called good readers.” On the other hand, readers who can get the facts seldom get the subjective points (ibid.). While teaching reading comprehension, the teacher must always keep in mind that the goal is to understand what the author meant.
Davis (2008) writes that undoubtedly students of any language need to be able to read in that language. However, it is not very clear what is exactly meant by reading. Native speakers read a big deal of material each day depending largely on their motivation for reading. Reading in a foreign language is a very useful and relatively painless way to improve the command over the target language. When students already have a thorough understanding of the basic structure and vocabulary of the language, they are able to tackle and enjoy authentic texts on subjects of their interest the benefits of reading widely and relatively long texts are enormous for students with a relatively high level of proficiency in the language. They have different needs and different problems from those which they faced at lower educational levels. As they have already studied the vast majority of structures and ways of expressing meaning in English, these students need to be well familiar with the intricacies of these structures, rather than learning ever more. Through reading they can have better understanding of “the subtleties and shades of meaning carried by the use of a particular choice of words in a particular context.” Grammatical Structures and vocabulary can be learned easily through reading a lot. While students are about to complete their formal study of the “structural elements of English”, vocabulary will continue growing.
Hussein (2005, p.110) writes that a person who comprehends English language has the following capabilities:
1.       He can read at normal speed.
  1. He is able to understand “the lexical and the structural meanings of the words, phrases and sentences.”
  2. He can “take in complete phrases or groups of words at once and when reading aloud, use appropriate sounds, juncture, stress and intonation pattern.”
  3. He can guess the meaning of unfamiliar words while reading a text.
  4. If he is unable to guess the meaning of an unfamiliar word, he can find out it in a dictionary.
  5. He can skip unnecessary information while skimming.
  6. He is able to read silently without moving his lips.
  7. He is able to differentiate between opinion and facts.
  8. He can locate the topic sentence in a paragraph.
  9. He can make a summary of important points.
  10. He can distinguish between various moods of the writer.
  11. He can recognize the meanings of various graphic signals such as punctuation marks, etc.
Aebersold and Field (1997, p. 15) write that reading is what happens when people look at a text and assign meaning to the written symbols in that text. The text and the reader are two physical entities necessary for the reading process to begin. It is, however, the interaction between the text and the reader that constitutes actual reading. The “attainment of simple reading” is not the quest. An insight, compassion, opens – mindedness and tolerance must be developed. So many of young readers are interested only in fast – paced thrillers, which leave little room for reflection. Such readers when asked to read a classic agitate with loud groans (Pervez, 2008, p. 21).
Buzen (1997, pp. 33 – 34), on the other hand, defines reading as a process involving following seven steps:
1.       Recognition i.e. the knowledge of the alphabetical symbols. This step takes place the instant before the physical reading begins.
  1. Assimilation – by which light is reflected from the word received by the eye and transmitted, via the optic nerve, to the brain.
  2. Intra – integration – a process equivalent to the basic comprehension, referring to the linking of all parts of the information being read with all other appropriate parts.
  3. Extra – integration i.e. bringing of previous knowledge to the material being read and  making appropriate connections, analyzing, appreciating, selecting and reading.
  4. Retention i.e. the basic storage of information.
  5. Recall i.e. being able to get back from the storage whenever and whatever is needed.
  6. Communication i.e. the use to which the information is immediately or eventually put.
Reading is indeed very important in learning a foreign language. To give reading its due importance in Pakistani system of language learning, it is a dire need of time to understand the importance of reading in second language learning with particular to learning English as a second language. Language skills are usually grouped as receptive skills i.e. reading and listening, and productive skills i.e. speaking and writing. “People who use a language have a number of sub – skills within each of the four main skills.” (Lucantoni, 2001, p. 4). The basic purpose of reading in first language learning is somehow different from that of second language learning. “In FL (Foreign Language) learning, reading is often used for purposes which are different from those found in mother – tongue. The most typical use of reading in a foreign language class is to teach the language itself.” In this way, vocabulary, structures and other things can be learnt through reading in a foreign language and to extend command over that particular language (Nuttall, 1982, p. 19).
2. Reading  Process
Woryodijoyo (1989 : 10-11) puts forward some  stages on reading process as follow :
c.       Perception
The perception here indicates the ability to read word
d.      Comprehension
The comprehension refers to the ability to make the author or writer word conductiveto useful through as read in contexts
e.       Reaction
The reaction is the action that requires consideration in connection with what has been writen by author or writer.
f.       Integration
The integration reveals to the ability to comprehend or to understand through concept towards the experiences background of the write that can be useful as a part of thr readers experience.
This four stages according to wiryodijoyo are interpendent to teach each other in reading as means for problem solving. The reading process according to Halim (1967 : 42) described in the following manners. In general, the eyes began at the left hand side of the line of print, proceed with a series (fixation) along the right hand side and then move smoothly of reason.
Instructors want to produce students who, even if they do not have complete control of the grammar or an extensive lexicon, can fend for themselves in communication situations. In the case of reading, this means producing students who can use reading strategies to maximize their comprehension of text, identify relevant and non-relevant information, and tolerate less than word-by-word comprehension.  
To accomplish this goal, instructors focus on the process of reading rather than on its product.
a.       They develop students' awareness of the reading process and reading strategies by asking students to think and talk about how they read in their native language.
  1. They allow students to practice the full repertoire of reading strategies by using authentic reading tasks. They encourage students to read to learn (and have an authentic purpose for reading) by giving students some choice of reading material.
  2. When working with reading tasks in class, they show students the strategies that will work best for the reading purpose and the type of text. They explain how and why students should use the strategies.
  3. They have students practice reading strategies in class and ask them to practice outside of class in their reading assignments. They encourage students to be conscious of what they're doing while they complete reading assignments.
  4. They encourage students to evaluate their comprehension and self-report their use of strategies. They build comprehension checks into in-class and out-of-class reading assignments, and periodically review how and when to use particular strategies.
  5. They encourage the development of reading skills and the use of reading strategies by using the target language to convey instructions and course-related information in written form: office hours, homework assignments, and test content.
  6. They do not assume that students will transfer strategy use from one task to another. They explicitly mention how a particular strategy can be used in a different type of reading task or with another skill.
By raising students' awareness of reading as a skill that requires active engagement, and by explicitly teaching reading strategies, instructors help their students develop both the ability and the   confidence to handle communication situations they may encounter beyond the classroom. In this way they give their students the foundation for communicative competence in the new language.
3. Developing reading comprehension
Anderson (1969: 107) points out some specific and method of improving reading comprehension, they are :
a.       determine the porpuse of reading. Ask your self what you want to gain from reading the passage of selection
b.      Pay attention to words each subject in the curriculum has it is own special vocabulary and the students’ success will depend on some extend on their mastery of it. The students’ should look at all words carefully.
c.       Utilize context clues. The use of surronding context can help the students’ derive the full meaning from a passage.
d.      Use the six WH question in all reading. Comprehension is based on the questions who, where, what, when, why and how.
e.       Phrase reading not only reduces the usual number of fixation per line, but also makes the meaning clearer.
f.       Examine the structure paragraph.
4. Difficulties in Reading
There are some difficulties in reading that frequently accurs. They are :
a.Sub Vocalizing
            One undesirable habit that commonly happens is that the readers unconsciously form word with the lips or in throat in reading the habit of “sub vocalizing” in reading, this habit should be aroided abandoned. In this case Brewton, et al, 1962 : 121 explain : perhaps you have some readings that are holdovers from the habits you formed when you first learned to read. On such habit is quite coming among adults is that of unconsciously forming words with the lips of in the throat such as habit called “sub vocalizing”.
b. Habit of regression
Brewton,  et,  al  (1962: 122)  also  point  out  that  another  habit to  avoid  in reading is that of going back over your track, almost everyone reads in this way that is by doing the habit of regression. When reading very difficult materials, the reader sometimes rereads the passage, this habit is allowed. However, in ordinary reading, that habit should not be frequent because it can block reading and comprehension. In this following, the emphasize “ another habit to avoid is that of “going back over tracks”. Almost everyone is guilty of habit of regression to a degree, if you are reading very difficult materials, you form understanding what come next. But such a return should not be deliberate one and it should not be frequent on ordinary reading. Do let yourself  jump back and fort of close the of what you are reading, if you keep reading the next sentence or paragraph may clear what is puzzling you.  
c. Word-by-word reading
            The reader who reads word by word may provide himsellf and handicap or roadblock to understand meaning rapidly and to speed his reading in this case relation. Let us deal with the following statement the word by word reader is  getting his information too slowly. This though wonder, other ideas come and before long. The reader is not concentrating on the meaning of what his eyes see because he is unable to keep his mind fully involved. Based on the statement above, it is abvious that word by word
d. Poor concentration
            Concentration is very important in effective reading. The reader can not submerge himself completely in the reading prices, if he has poor or less concentrations in reading. Consequently, high reading speed and perfect comprehension can not be realized well. Therefore, good and high comprehension is considerable needed. In these relations    Bakka (1989:27) comments that poor concentration makes the readers unable speed up his reading rate and to get understands all meaning of he passage he is reading. In this case, he says the effectiveness of every part of the modern reading technique is depending on the ability to submerge you completely on the reading process. Concentration is the secret you can not get at your faster speed ans still get all meanings unless you concentrate.
“Bakka (1989: 27). This statement indicates that convention is needed. Of course, good concentration is extremly needed in reading activity. That is why a reader should concentrate in reading.
D. Concept of reading comprehension
Reading comprehension is primarily a matter of developing approproate, efficient comprehension strategy. Some experts have formulated the definitions of reading comprehension, they are:
Smith and Robinson (1980) state that reading comprehension means that the understanding, evaluating and utilizing the information and idea gained through an interaction between reader and authors. Reading comprehension is such a kind of dialogue between an author and a reader in which the written language become the medium of communication. It means that with understanding and comprehending the material that have written, the interaction  between a reader and author accour effectively.
According to Kustaryo (1980) states that reading comprehension understands what has been read. It is an active thinking process that depends not only comprehension skill but also  the students’ experience and prior knowledge comprehension involves understanding the vocabulary, seeing the  relationship amonmg words and concepts, organizing judgment and evaluating.
Anderson (1984: 160) states that reading comprehension is a reader’s comprehension abusively by contracting meaning from interacting with material that is read.
Anderson (1984: 162) argues that comprehension involves the reader discovering the meaning needed to achieve the particular purpose. It may be of finding a particular peace of information, solving problem, and working to understanding an idea or following a set of direction. Therefore reading comprehension is also way directed to control by the needs of  the purpose of the reader.
From the above statement, it can be concluded that reading comprehension means a way of discovering, understanding and utilizing the information accurately through the interaction between the reader and author.
1. The Role of Reading Comprehension
                   One of the most important aspects of teaching reading is the selection of the reading text. There are some fairly considerations. The reading selection should not contain market dialects or slang leatures (many pocket books are unsuitable in this aspect) or old fashioned language use (which rules out many classics in their original versions). The selection should have high interest value to the student and the simple way of establishing this by asking the students their opinions of the readings and the eliminating low interest selection from future curricula. The content should not contrast with is interesting and ideologically compatible, at least at the early stages. Anderson (1972: 50-59).
              Michael west argues against using reading with a local setting as it result in a vocabulary of low frequency: Bullock being much less frequent than horse is the example he gives. We should argue the opposite: student need the vocabulary of what is relevant to their world. It is also easier to learn to read when the culture background is familiar and students can be interested on cultural information in the coding process. Actually we have had very good result with Asimov Science. Fiction Nine Tomorrow, which tends to be culturally neutral. On the intermediate and advanced levels the student also need to be exposed the type of writing other than narrative and dialogue which are the basic staple of elementary level text. They need practice with critical reading decoding and evaluation, explanation and analysis, argument and persuasion summeries and non fictional narration such us news reporting, history and biographies.     
2. Categories of Reading Comprehension
            Comprehension involves thinking. As there are various levels of comprehension. Smith (1997: 107) devides the comprehension skill into four categories:
a.  word, idea, sentence in the text. This is a fundamental skill to any level of reading skill.
b. Interpretative reading
            Interpretative reading involve between the lines or making inferences. Interpretative  level of comprehension goes beyond the literal comprehension to supply meaning which is not apparent in word presented. The reader must read between one line to get inferences or implied from the text.
c. Critical reading
            Critical reading is higher level than other two categories because it involves evaluation the meaning of personal judgment on the accuracy, vallue, truth-fullness of what is read.
d. Creative reading
            Creative reading uses different thinking skill to get beyond the literal comprehension, interpretation and critical reading level. In creative reading, the readers tries to come up with now or alternate solution to these presented by the writer. In this skill, the readers recognizes the idea from new p0rinted into new pattern and he can express the recognized learning through various media.
            There are some factors affect the students’ success in reading comprehension all of which share the success in reading comprehension.
a. Motivation 
            Motivation is very important for the success and failure in  reading. One’s motivation can be influenced by internal or external factors. Internal factors mean everything which come from the reader themselves, where it can help to push student always read and interact in reading process. While external factor means everything from uot of readers themselves that can help the students to learn especially to read, as an example, reading material can be easily learnt, when the student understand about everything has relationship with their environment.
b. Concentration
            Concentration means to focus one’s attention clearly on a purpose.  Concentration is very easy to do, if one is interested in what he or she reads.
c. Teacher’s guidance
            The teacher’s guidance influences how the students understand particular assignment, because lack of sufficient guidance may also be a major factor in low reading comprehension.
d. The length and the difficulty of the material affect reader of reading.
e. Vocabulary acquistion and the ability to form concept are essential for reading.
3. Level Of Reading Comprehension
            Clearly, we read in order to understand, regardless of what we read and whether for information or for pleasure. Point out three levels of comprehension, as below:
a. Literal level
            Reading the lines to the literal meaning of the material, clearly the most basic level, without no others as possible. When we note that about third of the second years students can not read thierbtextbook. We mean that they do not comprehend the material, even on this literal level. The reader must determine wheter the words, sentence structure, concept or any coombination of these create the problem of comprehension or other the students’ training, ability or background is nvolved.
            Reading the lines or literal comprehension involves acquiring information that directly state in the selection is important of itself and it also prerequisite for higher level understanding. Example of this skill involves the ability to follow direction and the ability to restate the author’s material in word.
            Recognizing stated main ideas, details, cause and through understanding of vocabulary, sentence, meaning is important. Reading the line is usual stated by question such us, what is the author telling us? What evidence is he giving for his statement? What does the sentences (paragraph, selection and chapter book) mean?
b. Interpretative level   
            The second level, reading between the lines, is one which the readers recognize the author’s intend and purpose interpret his statement, search for an interpretation clues, distinguish between the fact and opinion. This is obviously a nature level of reading, requiring thinking and evidences.
            Burns (1984: 183) point out that skill of interpretive involve:
a.       Inferring main ideas of passage in which the main idea are not directly stated
b.      Inferring cause and effect relationship when they are not directly stated
c.       Inferring referents of pronouns
d.      Inferring referents of adverb
e.       Inferring omitted words
f.       Detecting mood
g.      Detecting the author’s purpose in writng, and
h.      Drawing conclusion
c. Explorative level
            Reading between the lines involves deriving implication, speculating about consequences and drawing generalization not stated by the author. The process of analysis also leads to a new synthesis by the readers whose initiative and originally leads to a new insights and reflections on the significances of the ideas.
4.  Kinds of Reading Comprehension
            Harris (1980: 15) classified reading into two kinds as follow:
1.      Development  reading activities are those in which the teacher main purpose  to bring  an improvement in reading skill activities in which learning to read is the main goal.
2.      Functional reading is includes reading which the primary aim is to obtain information. In other words, reading has enjoyment, entertainment and appreciation as major purpose. Reeading is classified into two kinds namely: silent reading and reading aloud.
a.        Silent reading
Silent reading is the acticity we normaly engage in when we read books, newspaper read signs, etc. It  involves looking in the silences and understanding the message they convey. We could developed our understanding in the silent reading by giving short reading passages in the beginning and by asking question about after word.
b.      Reading aloud
Reading aloud is a completely different activity. It  purpose  is not only to understand a text but also to convey the information to someone reading aloud.
5.The Contextual Guessing Technique
1. Definition of contextual guessing technique
The technique of finding the meaning of an unknown word through its use in a sentence and then guessing how it is pronounced is known as contextual guessing or context identification, or the use of context clues. The context in which an unknown word is used limits the number of words that could be correct. The problem then is to select from the possible synonyms the exact word used. When the students know the probable meaning of the word and have two or three synonyms in mind, it is easier for them to use structural and phonics analysis to identify the word. Contextual guessing is the most important skill used by most readers in attacking new words. It is closely related to comprehension and this is one of the most practical skills students learn. Context clues have several uses in reading. The four uses named below are of special importance to readers of foreign languages: First, context clues help readers to derive the pronunciation and meaning of a known word from its uses in a sentence. Second, context clues also help to determine the pronunciation and meaning of an unknown word from its use in a sentence. When context is used for this purpose, a student reads around an unknown word, gets the general meaning of the sentence and then guesses at the pronunciation and meaning of the unfamiliar word from the way it is used. Third, context determines how the accentuation of similar words used in different contexts or with different grammatical usages affects their meanings. Fourth, context provides clues to the meanings of words that vary according to the subject area in which they are used. Context clues can function only if the material is suited to the reader in terms of difficulty and familiarity or interest. If the context is too involved, or if there are too many unknown words, context is of little value. When the material deals with unfamiliar concepts or is dry and dull to the reader, he is not likely to be able to develop a continuous line of thought suitable for anticipating an
unknown word. All reading materials, therefore, should be chosen with these criteria in mind:
a. Reading materials should be of interest to the reader
b. Concepts developed in the material should be in line with the reader’s                                experience background
c. There should be no more than one unfamiliar word to among 20 conceptive words             in materials used for contextual guessing training
d. Upper-grading reading materials should include pictures, graphs, charts and tables
e. Sentence structure should be appropriate for the achievement level and language              maturity of the students.
The procedures for developing abilities in contextual guessing can be incorporated in class reading presentations or special exercises. Before we go further analyzing contextual guessing we must consider a few preliminary questions concerning this skill. These questions pertain to the usefulness and to the trainability of the guessing skill. As to the usefulness, the favorable effect of the guessing skill on reading speed and text comprehension can be well
noted. It is self-evident that a reader who is not able to use context adequately will have to refer to the dictionary continually and in many cases will not be able to choose the correct alternative. With respect to the trainability of the skill we may refer to an investigation to a varied series of experiments carried out in an English reading class in our university. All the experiments require subjects (three different levels) to try to guess the meaning of unknown words (limited in number) or to fill in blanks in their foreign language texts. Then they were asked to verbalize their thought processes. An analysis was made by contrasting successful
and unsuccessful actions of different subjects with respect to the same unknown words or blanks.
Analysis of the experiments indicated that different subjects can act on different linguistic levels. The subjects were found to be acting on a syntactic level when trying to find out the grammatical structure of a sentence. They were acting on a semantic level when exploring the immediate or wider context of the unknown word or blank in order to find its meaning. Subjects were acting on a lexical level when they inspected the word form in order to derive its meaning. Sometimes, though not always, they were acting on a stylistic level when they tried to appreciate the stylistic usage of a word. These analyses also indicated that guessing skill is trainable.
An analysis of the various errors at different levels in guessing the meaning of an unknown word or blank may help in setting up a training procedure for contextual guessing skills. In syntactic level the subjects sometimes leave some elements of the sentence unexplained, or add themselves some elements that is necessary for their interpretation of the passage. Or, in more cases, they misread some words and distort the context in such a way that it fits in with their premature guessing. At another level, the semantic level, a subject does not check his hypothesis for acceptability within the context, which often results in a total misconception of what is being said.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CHAPTER III
METHOD OF THE RESEARCH
A.  Research design
This research will employ the pre-experimental design with one group pretest and posttest design. The students will give pretest to know the students ability in reading comprehension without using contextual guessing technique.
The research design conducte as follows:
O1                           X                       O2
Where:    
O1        :  pretest
X         :  treatment
O2        :  postest
(Gay, 1981: 280)
           
B.  Research Variables
This research consists of two variables. They are dependent and independent variables. The independent variable is the use of contextual guessing technique in teaching reading, while the dependent variable is the teaching reading comprehension.
C.  Population and Sample
1.      Population
The population of this research is all the first year students of SMK Negeri  Mehalaan  in academic year of  2010/2011.
2.      Sample
This research, the researcher use total sampling technique in which the students of class 1A will be taken as sample.  
D.    Instrument of research
The instrument of this research is test and questionnaire. The researcher use two kinds of instrument namely, objective test, which consist 15 items which arranged in multilpe choise and questionnaire use in treatment and they will use to find out the students attitude toward the use of contextual guessing technique in consists of 10 items.
E.     Procedure of collecting data
The procedure of collecting data, will present in chronological order as follows:
   1. Pre-test
            Before doing treatment, the writer took total sampling that test consist of 15 items, it will intend to see the students prior knowledge on reading comprehension.
The procedures of pre-test as follows:
a.       The researcher distributed the test to the students
b.      The researcher explain to the student how to work out the test
c.       The student do the test in 45 minutes
d.      The researcher collect the test.
2. Treatment
            The students receive treatment of reading material by using contextual guessing technique that the teacher will give explanation about: contextual guessing technique.
a.       The researcher ask the students about the topic
b.      The researcher ask the students what did they want to know about the topic
c.       The material will give by the researcher to the students, and then the students answer the question accordance with the topic
d.      The researcher give chance for the students to explain the topic based on their own  knowledge and how to get information by the topic
e.       The researcher made conclusion
3. Post tes
            In post test will give after treatment. It consist of 15 items and it aimed to find out weather there are any significantly differences on the students knowledge after learning through contextual guessing technique. The procedure of  the post test is the same as in the pre-test.
F.     Technique of analysis data 
The data collect through the test that are analize quantitative by employing statitical calculation  to the hypothesis. The procedure under taken in quantitative analysis will form as follows:
        1. Calculating the students correct answer of pre-test and post test
                                     Total correct answer     
                        Score =                                                x 10
                                            Total test item


                                                                                                           
                                                                                   
                                                                                                                        (depdikbud, 1985: 5)
        2.  To illuminate the statistically data a research analysis data quantity using the following formula:


P =  x 10

Where :
            P   = persentage
            F4 = number of correct frequency
            N  = total number of sample

                                                                                                                        (Arikunto, 1993: 33)

     3. The calculating the mean score the following formula is apply:
                  
         X  =  
Where :
            X   = mean score
            x = total score of test
            N   = total respondents

                                                                                                            (Arikunto, 1993: 33)
4. Tabulating the score of the students formula into the following classification.
No.
               Rate  of score
            Categories
 1.
 2.
 3.
 4.
 5.
 6.
 7.
9.6 – 10
8.6 – 9.5
7.6 – 8.5
6.6 – 7.5
5.6 – 6.5
3.6 – 5.5
0.0 – 3.5
Excelent
Very good
Good
Fairly good
Fair
Poor
Very poor

5. Calculate  the value of the t-test to indicate the significant different between score of the      pre-test by applying the following formula.
               
           t  =       
               
Notation :
                 t      = test of significance
                 D     = deviation
                     = the sum of D square
               = the sum of D
                 N     = number of students
                                                                                                            (Gay, 1981: 331)        
Share this article :
 
Support : Sentral Edukasi | Mas Template
Proudly powered by Blogger
Copyright © 2016. Butta Toa BTG - All Rights Reserved
Template Design by Creating Website Published by Mas Template